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Advice Sheets

Achilles Tendinopathy

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Achilles tendinopathy is a condition that causes pain, swelling and stiffness of the tendon that runs down the back of the lower leg to the heel.

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Athlete's Foot

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A common fungal infection of the skin, usually seen in between the toes or on the sole of the foot.

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Bunion

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A bunion is a painful bony bump that develops on the inside of the foot at the big toe joint. Bunions develop slowly. Pressure on the big toe joint causes the big toe to lean toward the second toe.

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Bursitis

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Bursitis is the inflammation and swelling of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac which forms under the skin, usually over the joints, and acts as a cushion between the tendons and bones, it is basically like a blister, but one that sits deep to the skin.

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Chilblains

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Chilblains are small itchy, red (and sometimes purple) swellings on the skin, which can become increasingly painful, and are caused when your blood circulation responds abnormally to cold temperature.

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Claw, Hammer and Mallet toes

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These toe deformities can be best described as an abnormal contraction or “buckling” of a toe. They occur due to an imbalance in the muscles, tendons or ligaments that normally hold the toe straight.

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Corns and Callous

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Callus (or callosity) is an extended area of thickened, hard skin on the soles of the feet.
Corns are small circles of thick skin that usually develop on the tops and sides of toes or on the sole of the foot caused by excessive pressure.

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Fungal Nails

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The infection is caused by a fungus and develops slowly and causes the nail to become discoloured, thickened and distorted. Toenails are more frequently affected than the fingernails.

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Gout

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Gout is a type of arthritis and affects one in every 100 people in the UK. It causes sudden swelling and severe pain in your joints, especially at the base of your big toe. If you have gout, uric acid, a chemical made by your body, forms tiny crystals (called tophi) in your joints. This can trigger pain, redness and swelling in your joints, causing arthritis.

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Hallux Limitus

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Hallux Limitus is a condition in which the big toe joint becomes painful and stiff. It is most often due to osteoarthritis of the joint itself.

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Hallux Rigidus

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Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the joint, and with time it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe.

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Ingrown Toenail

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An ingrown toenail occurs when the edges or corners of your nail grow into the skin on the sides of the nail.

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Morton’s Neuroma

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Morton’s neuroma is a common, painful condition affecting the base of the toes, usually the third and fourth toes. It may be caused by the metatarsal bones compressing the nerve when the gap between the bones is narrow. This causes the nerve to thicken and become painful.

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Nail Surgery

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If a nail problem (e.g. ingrowing toenail) is severe or does not resolve with conservative treatment your podiatrist will normally recommend nail surgery. This simple procedure produces a good cosmetic effect.

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Osgood-Schlatter Disease

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Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition that causes pain and swelling just below the knee, it is not serious and usually goes away in time. It is one of the common causes knee pain in active adolescent children who play sports, although it can sometimes occur in children who are not sporty.

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Peroneal Tendonitis

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Peroneal tendonitis is an overuse injury causing inflammation and degeneration of the peroneal tendons resulting in pain on the outside of the ankle.

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Plantar Fasciitis

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Plantar fasciitis (plan-tur fas-e-i-tis) is one of the most common type of heel pain. It involves inflammation of the thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes (plantar fascia).

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Plantar Plate Tear

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The plantar plate is designed to protect the head of the metatarsal from pressure and prevent over extension of our toes. When it is overloaded or strained, a tear can develop. As your second metatarsal is often the longest, plantar plate tears most often develop at the second toe.

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Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

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The posterior tibial tendon serves as one of the major supporting structures of the foot, helping it to function while walking. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a condition caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch.

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Sesamoiditis

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Under the ball of your foot there are two small bones, attached to separate tendons that run underneath the foot to the big toe. They act as a pulley, increasing the force with which the big toe may be pressed down. Unfortunately, they are prone to injury and when they are inflammed, it is known as sesamoiditis.

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Sever's Disease

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Sever's Disease, otherwise known as apophysitis of the calcaneus is an inflammation of the growth plate in the heel of growing children. The condition presents as pain in the heel and is caused by repetitive stress to the heel and is thus particularly common in active children.

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Stress Fracture

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Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse, such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also develop from normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.

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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

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Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compression, or squeezing, on the posterior tibial nerve that produces symptoms anywhere along the path of the nerve running from the inside of the ankle into the foot.

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Verruca

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A verruca (also called a plantar wart) is a viral skin infection of the outer (epidermal) layer of skin, caused by the human papilloma virus. They appear as tiny black dots under hard skin and do not cause any harm, but some people find them itchy, painful or embarrassing. Will it go on its own? Yes, eventually! In some people (especially young children) verrucae self resolve in 6-24 months. In adults they can last a lot longer, sometimes years to decades.

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Contact us

You can reach us on:

0131 331 1296

JW Physiotherapy & Sports Injury Clinics
27 High Street

South Queensferry

Edinburgh

EH30 9PP

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